From the Annals of the Panhandle – In 1874 Col. Ranald Mackenzie and the Fourth U.S. Cavalry attempted a surprise attack on Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa encampments in Palo Duro Canyon. Although known as the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, the attack involved little loss of life as it was primarily a raid to seized Indian horses and property. Assisted by Tonkawa scouts, the cavalry wanted to surprise the Indians who were settling into their winter camps. However, the Indians were warned by the Comanche leader Red Warbonnet, who discovered the soldiers and fired a warning shot before being killed by the Tonkawas. Cheyenne chief Iron Shirt, Comanche leader Poor Buffalo, and the Kiowa chief were left in charge. The camps were located in various parts of the vast canyon which did not allow the Indians to mount a united defense. As a result most of the Indians retreated leaving behind over 1400 horses and most of their winter stores. Only three Comanche were killed as was one soldier. The BOPDC was the last major event in the Red River Wars and resulted in the confinement of southern Plains Indians in reservations in Indian Territory.