From the Annals of Broken Promises – In 1819 the Adams-Onís Treaty was signed by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams for the United States and Luís de Onís for Spain. The treaty fixed the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase and had the effect of renouncing U.S. claims to Texas. The newly fixed boundary began at the mouth of the Sabine River and ran along its south and west bank to the thirty-second parallel and thence directly north to the Río Roxo (Red River). The boundary then followed the course of the Río Roxo westward to the 100th meridian and then due north to the Arkansas River. From there the boundary followed the southern bank of the Arkansas to its source near the 42nd parallel and then following the 42nd to the “South Sea” (Pacific Ocean). Spain delayed ratification of the treaty and in the interval Mexico declared its independence. The newly formed country refused to accede to the terms of the treaty and never recognized the negotiated boundary.