From the Annals of the War Chiefs – In 1875, Kiowa chief Tsen-tainte (“White Horse”) surrendered at Fort Sill. White Horse and his followers were notorious for their numerous raids across Texas, Oklahoma and New Mexico. He was considered to be the fiercest of the Kiowa chiefs. Along with Satank, Satanta, Zepko-ete, Mamanti and Big Tree participated in the Warren Wagon Train raid at Salt Creek Prairie in May 1871. He also fought in the second battle of Adobe Walls in June 1874. After that he fought with Quanah Parker and Guipago in the Red River War. After the battle of Palo Duro Canyon in September 1874, he became convinced that further resistance was futile. When Gen. Philip Sheridan demanded that Chief Kicking Bird designate men for imprisonment in the east, White Horse was chosen. Along with other he was imprisoned at St. Augustine, Florida. He became a practitioner of Ledger Art while in prison. He was released in 1878 and returned to the reservation near Fort Sill.
Tag Archives: Warren Wagon Train Raid
Today in Texas History – October 11
From the Annals of Suicide – In 1878, Kiowa chief Satanta committed suicide by jumping from his prison cell in Huntsville. Satanta was probably close to 60 at the time. He had been a rising leader since the Medicine Lodge Treaty council in October 1867, where he came to be known as the “Orator of the Plains.” In 1871 Satanta and his fellow chiefs Satank and Big Tree were arrested for their part in the Warren Wagon Train raid. Satank was killed while trying to escape. Satanta and Big Tree were tried for murder at Jacksboro which was the first time Native American chiefs were tried in a civil court. They were convicted and sentenced to hang, but Texas governor E. J. Davis commuted the sentences to life imprisonment. Satanta was quickly paroled in 1873, but was re-arrested for his role in the attack on Lyman’s Wagon Train in Palo Duro canyon and in the second battle of Adobe Walls. His second incarceration was too much for the Kiowa Chief who took his life rather than spend his remaining days in prison.