From the Annals of Bad Decisions – In 1861, the Texas State Secession Convention voted overwhelmingly to secede from the United States following the lead of several other southern states. Rather than concede that Republican Abraham Lincoln had been duly elected, the Southern states chose to secede precipitating what would be the worst tragedy in U.S. history. As Red has noted many times, the Texas Ordinance of Secession is one of the most vile, racists screeds that an organized governmental body has ever produced. The Ordinance of Secession was subject to a popular referendum to which was held on February 23, 1861. The vote was 46,153 in favor of secession and 14,747 against.
From the Annals of Heraldry – In 1839, the Republic of Texas Congress adopted the Texas national seal consisting of a five point white star on a sky blue background ringed by olive and live oak branches. The Republic’s seal has been modernized but has remained essentially the same to date. When Texas became a state in 1845, the words encircling the main elements were changed from Republic of Texas to State of Texas.
From the Annals of the Llano Estacado – In 1871, former slave Britton Johnson was killed by a band of Kiowa who attacked his wagon train. Johnson had been a slave of Moses Johnson, but was treated more like the foreman of his ranch and allowed freedom of movement and to raise his own livestock. In October of 1864, Indians killed his son and kidnapped his wife and other children in the Elm Creek Raid. Johnson pursued his relatives and became somewhat legendary for his exploits across the Llano Estacado that eventually resulted in the ransom of his relatives. After the Civil War, Johnson worked as a teamster hauling goods between Weatherford and Fort Griffin. On the fateful trip he and two other black teamsters were ambushed by a band of about 25 Kiowa four miles east of Salt Creek in Young County. A group of teamsters from a larger train of wagons discovered the bodies and reported that it appeared that Johnson died last in a desperate defense behind the body of his horse. Other teamsters who found the mutilated bodies of Johnson and his men counted 173 rifle and pistol shells in the area where Johnson made his stand. He was buried with his men in a common grave beside the wagon road.
From the Annals of the True Heroes of the Civil War -In 1863, former Texas State Sen. Martin Hart was executed in Fort Smith, Arkansas for his supposed treason against the Confederate States of America. Hart was an attorney from Hunt County who had served in the Texian Army during the Revolution at age 15. He later served in the Texas Legislature as a representative and senator. He was opposed to secession. After the Texas Legislature passed the vile screed known as the “Ordinance of Secession”, he resigned from the Legislature and organized the Greenville Guards, pledging the company’s services “in defense of Texas whenever she is invaded or threatened with invasion.” In the summer of 1862 he received a Confederate commission with permission to raise a company and conduct operations in northwest Arkansas. However, he used his commission to travel through Confederate lines leading his followers to Missouri where they joined Union forces. He returned to Arkansas where he led a series of rear-guard actions against Confederate forces, and is alleged to have murdered at least two prominent secessionists. He and others were captured on January 18, 1863, by Confederate forces, hung five days later and buried in an unmarked graves under the hanging tree. After Fort Smith was recaptured by Union forces, his remains were moved to the National Cemetery there. Contributions from Union soldiers paid for his headstone.
From the Annals of the Speculators – In 1883, the “Fifty Cent Act” was removed from Texas law. The FCA had been in effect for just over four years and provided for selling off Texas public land at the bargain basement price of fifty cents an acre. Half of the sales proceeds were to be used to pay down the public debt and the other half to establish a permanent school fund. The FCA applied to lands in over fifty Texas counties resulting in the sale of 3,201,283 acres for $1,600,641.55. The FCA Act was repealed due to abuse and fraudulent land speculation.
From the Annals of the Revolution – In 1836, Jim Bowie arrived at the Alamo in San Antonio. Bowie was notorious as an Indian fighter, duelist and land speculator. He was actually involved in one of the largest attempted land swindles in U.S. history in Louisiana, but was never able to complete the scheme. He was not only a slave owner and trader, but a slave smuggler as well with a scheme that made him rich off of smuggling, buying and selling slaves. After coming to Texas, he renounced his U.S. citizenship, became a Mexican citizen and married into the influential Veramendi family of San Antonio.
He arrived at the Alamo with about 30 volunteers and initially was of the mind that the crumbling mission was indefensible against the Mexican Army on the march. He later became convinced that San Antonio must be held at all costs – most likely by the commander James Neill. One of his cadre, James Bonham circulated a resolution decreeing that The Alamo must be held and Bowie signed it. It would be his death warrant along with the other defenders of The Alamo.
From the Annals of the Highways – In 1841, the Houston and Austin Turnpike Company was chartered. The plan was to lay out a road from Austin to Houston. The charter allowed the HATC to charge tolls provided that toll gates be located at least forty miles apart. The work was to start within twelve months and be completed in five years. The road was planned to start at Houston, cross the Brazos River within five miles of San Felipe de Austin, and to continue from there to Austin on a route to be selected. Nothing came of the HATC and it was followed by the chartering of another 50 failed attempts between 1841 and 1905.
Considering how long it took the state to make Hwy 71 a four-lane divided highway running from Columbus to Austin, Red is not surprised at the repeated failures. Red reckons that it took almost 30 years for that project to be completed and he is still amazed that there is not a controlled access freeway accessing Austin from the east.
From the Annals of the U.S. Army – In 1942, Camp Hood near Killeen was activated as a temporary camp in preparation for active operations in World War II. The temporary camp, was named for Confederate general John Bell Hood. The Army initially acquired about 180,000 acres, and it was estimated that the camp would cost $22.8 million for the land, facilities, and development of utilities. The date of completion was set for 15 August 1942. Almost 300 families were displaced by the acquisition. The communities of Clear Creek, Elijah and Antelope were demolished during construction. The base was designed with large open spaces for the training of mobile anti-tank units to be deployed in Europe and elsewhere.
Fort Hood is now one of the largest military installations in the world in terms of size and the number of Army and civilian personnel stationed at the site. Fort Hood had a total population of 53,416 as of the 2010 U.S. Census making it the most populous U.S> military installation in the world. Fort Hood covers 214,000 acres making it one of the largest military bases in the world by area.
From the Annals of the Wildcatters – In 1901, the first Spindletop well came in near Beaumont. The site had been the object of speculation since the early 1890s, mostly by amateur geologist Patillo Higgins who was convinced there was a large pool of oil under a salt-dome formation south of Beaumont. He and his partners founded the Gladys City Oil, Gas and Manufacturing Company but never brought in a successful well. In 1899, Higgins leased a tract of land at Spindletop to mining engineer Anthony Lucas. The Lucas well erupted on January 10 scattering the oil hands as drilling pipe was blown out of the hole, followed by mud, gas and a 100 foot gusher of oil. It took 9 days to cap the well. This started the Spindletop boom. Within a year, there were almost 300 active wells at Spindletop and hundreds of oil exploration and land companies operating in the area. Companies such as Exxon, Texaco and Mobil got their start at Spindletop.
From the Annals of the Civil War – In 1865, the Kickapoo Indians defeated a Confederate Army force fighting with about 325 state militiamen at the Battle of Dove Creek in present day Tom Green County. In December 1864, a force of Texas Militia under Captain N.M. Gillentine discovered an abandoned Indian camp on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Gillentine believed that Comanche or Kiowa might have been at the site and called for action. A few days later, Confederate Texas Frontier Battalion troops under the command of Captain Henry Fossett arrived at Fort Chadbourne to address the supposed threat. Fossett located an encampment on Dove Creek. Fossett was unaware that it was a band of Kickapoo – a relatively peaceful tribe since the Black Hawk war.
As Fossett prepared for an attack, the Texas Militia troops arrived after a forced march and a joint attack was planned. The Militia launched a frontal assault on the camp from the north. The Confederates under Fossett maneuvered around to the southwest, captured the Indians’ horse herd, and attack from the flank.
The entire operation was bungled. The Kickapoo benefited from the well-placed camp, located on a tall bank covered with light timber and protected by natural brier thickets. The Militia got caught in the brier and came under intense rifle fire. Three Texan officers (including Gillentine) and sixteen enlisted men were killed in the first few minutes.
The Confederate force was initially successful in capturing the horse herd, but an attack on quickly faltered splintering the Rebels into three groups who were routed with heavy casualties. The Confederates and Texas Militia retreated eastward. The now embittered Kickapoos headed south for Mexico and began raiding settlers along the Rio Grande.
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